Interventions (this requires special expertise)

  • Interventions are dependent on disease phase. First of all, it may be helpful to use ways to increase the amount of air that can enter the lungs through deep breathing (lung inflation techniques). As DMD progresses, coughing will become less effective, and ways to improve this can be very helpful, such as with manual and assisted cough techniques. With time, support will be needed initially for breathing overnight and then later during the daytime (non-invasive nocturnal / daytime ventilatory support) as symptoms listed under the surveillance section develop. Support of breathing through the use of non-invasive ventilation is a very important way to maintain health. Ventilation may also be delivered via a surgically placed tube in the neck (tracheostomy tube) depending on local practice (this is known as invasive ventilatory support). All these interventions can help to keep people healthy and avoid acute illnesses.
  • Particular attention to the breathing is required around the time of planned surgery (see this section regarding respiratory considerations for surgery).

Information based on consensus statement (published in January 2010)